aaaaaaaaaaaaŽivljenje in tehnika 4/23

Življenje in tehnika 4/23

letnik LXXIV, april 2023

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Življenje in tehnika 4/23
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VZPON STROJEV, PREDZADNJIČ
Izraz ʻvzpon strojev’ najdemo v knjigah, spletnih objavah, filmih. Delno že leta 2021, v polni meri pa lani, je prišlo do revolucionarnega preboja na področju umetne inteligence – nevronske mreže so prvič pri gradnji modelov uporabljale celotni splet. Nastali modeli so zajemali približno toliko informacij kot človeški možgani.

Programi kot GPT3 so začeli tvoriti besedila, ki jih z naivnim Turingovim testom včasih nismo več ločevali od človeških, programi kot DALL-E (ŽIT 2022/11, str. 32) pa so na osnovi opisa tvorili slike, ki so občasno zmagovale na slikarskih tekmovanjih. 

Preskok v kakovosti v primerjavi z GPT3 je neverjeten. Marsikdo, tudi nekateri moji znanci, že uporablja chatGPT za tvorbo in popravljanje besedil, e-dopisovanje, za uradno pošto, za pisanje domačih nalog itd. Običajno je potrebno zapisano na koncu še popraviti, a kot različni prevajalniki vam tudi chatGPT prihrani čas. Pri tem je še nekajkrat učinkovitejši kot npr. google translate, saj lahko z njim v eni uri opravite delo, ki ga sicer ne bi končali prej kot v treh. Za razliko od omenjenega prevajalnika pa so ti programi sposobni tvoriti popolnoma nova, še nikoli prej in nikjer zapisana kakovostna besedila. 

Programi, kot so chatGPT, prebirajo zapise s celotnega spleta, novega pa tvorijo besedo za besedo in jih sestavljajo nekaj ...

MOTORJI Z NOTRANJIM ZGOREVANJEM NAPRODAJ
Seveda ne govorimo o malih oglasih. Gre za skupno rabo motorjev z notranjim zgorevanjem, ko agregati enega proizvajalca poganjajo tudi avtomobile drugega. Danes je to zaradi vse tesnejšega sodelovanja že samo po sebi umevno, še posebej zaradi vse manjšega števila neodvisnih avtomobilskih znamk. A česa takšnega v zlatih časih avtomobilske industrije ni bilo; dolgo je veljalo, da (skoraj) vsaka resna znamka razvija in izdeluje lastne motorje.

Primeri avtomobilskega motorja, ki ga niso razvili pri isti znamki, so številni in se pojavljajo skozi celotno zgodovino avtomobilizma. Ob njenem nastanku so številni mojstri in delavnice izdelovali kočije, niso pa imeli nikakršnega znanja in še manj izkušenj za izdelavo motorjev z notranjim zgorevanjem. Ta težava ni danes nič manjša: izkušnje in pretok znanja se krepijo, hkrati pa ima vse več posameznikov in podjetij v glavah oz. računalnikih do podrobnosti dodelane zamisli o novih avtomobilih, ne pa tudi o njihovem pogonu.

Razvoj motorjev z notranjim zgorevanjem je namreč draga reč. Danes so ga inženirji s praznega lista papirja (oz. računalniške datoteke) sposobni izdelati v le nekaj letih, a jim pri tem izjemno pomagajo prej nabrane izkušnje in računalniško modeliranje in preizkušanje. Če preskočimo obdobje kovaštva in obrtništva do časa po drugi svetovni vojni, ugotovimo, da so …

ANALOGNA ELEKTRONSKA GLASBILA
Oktobra 1958 je Ameriški patentni urad potrdil izum izpopolnjenega glasbenega sintetizatorja, pri katerem je kot vodilni inženir sodeloval Slovenec Herbert Belar. Njegov ʻsintesajzer’ uvrščamo v vrh analognih oz. zvezno delujočih elektronskih glasbil.

Beseda glasbilo nam v misli običajno prikliče umetelno izdelan predmet, pri katerem se urejeno mehansko zbujanje njegovih delov pretvarja v zgoščine zraka, te pa potem potujejo v naša čutila in možgane, kjer jih zaznamo kot melodije in harmonije. Kako daleč v razvoj človeške vrste sega namerno vzbujanje neorganskih zvokov, pravzaprav ne vemo, saj ga opažamo tudi pri nekaterih živalskih vrstah. Čeprav v naravi lahko prisluhnemo mnogim zvokom, je, kolikor je doslej znano, le človek zmožen zavestnega ritmičnega in melodičnega ustvarjanja, ponavljanja in smiselnega sestavljanja poljubnih zvočnih vzorcev, ki jim danes rečemo glasba.

Čist zvok ali ton glasbila si poenostavljeno ponazorimo kot nihanje oziroma kot sinusno krivuljo, kjer razdalja med sosednjima valoma predstavlja zvočno višino, odmik od ničelne vrednosti pa njegovo jakost. Po eni strani torej velja: čim krajša je razdalja med valovi, tem gostejše je nihanje in posledično vse višji ton. Vrednost tonske višine merimo v hertzih (Hz). Po drugi strani pa ...

 

CELOTEN SPISEK VIROV ČLANKA REALNOST RAZOGLJIČEVANJA – POGLEJ, PREDEN SKOČIŠ!

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Peter Hartley: It pollutes, so tax it; GWPF 2022  

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K. Jan Osthoek: Little ice age; environmental history resources (5. junij 2015)

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Richard Lindzen: An assessment of the conventional global warming narrative; GWPF 2022

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NASA: the thermohaline circulation - the great ocean conveyor belt

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Rebecca Hersher: Why sea level rise varies across the world; NPR, 20. august 2019

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NOAA: Tracking sea level rise … and fall

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Tuvalu seeks to retain statehood if it sinks completely a sea levels rise; The guardian, 11. november 2021 

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Frank Lasse: Tropical islands are growing; truth, energy an climate, 18. februar 2021

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David Nield: This Pacific island was expected to disappear, but it’s actually growing larger; ScienceAlert, 14. februar 2018

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WHO: Climate change: land degradation and desertification

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Robert McSweeny: Explainer: ‘Desertification’ and the role of climate change; CarbonBrief, 6. avgust 2019 

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NASA: Greening of the Earth mitigates surface warming; 24. november 2020

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NASA Goddard: Carbon dioxide fertilization greening Earth, study finds; 26. april 2016  

https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate3004
Zaichun Zu et al: Greening of the Earth and its drivers; Nature climate change, zvezek 6, st. 791–795 (2016)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15256664/
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NOAA PMEL: Feely testifies before U.S. House, November 2010

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Coastal sustainability institute: Ocean acidification may be good for thriving marine snails 

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Laetitia Plaisance et al: Effect of low pH on the coral reef cryptic invertebrate communities near CO2 venta in Papua New Guinea; PLOS ONE, 15. december 2021

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KathyCórdova-Rodríguez et al: Effect of low pH on growth and shell mechanical properties of the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819); Marine environmental research, zvezek 177, maj 2022

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C. Monnett, J. S. Gleason: Observations of mortality associated with extended open-water swimming by polar bears in the Alaskan Beaufort sea; Polar biology, zvezek 29, st. 681–687 (2006)

https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22823/14871490
IUCN Red list polar bear

https://radlek.si/2020/01/19/zanikovalci-susan-crockford-in-peter-ridd-dve-imeni-in-isti-vzorec-na-poti-do-visokega-soglasja-znanstvenikov/
Radlek.si: ZANIKOVALCI: Susan Crockford (10) (posodobljeno 4. 2. 2020) in Peter Ridd (11) - dve imeni in isti vzorec na poti do visokega soglasja znanstvenikov

https://radlek.si/2020/05/27/eppur-si-muove/
Radlek.si: Eppur si muove!

https://climatesciencenews.com/2021-08-02-record-growth-of-coral-cover-on-great-barrier-reef.html
J.D.Hayes: Record growth of coral cover on Great Barrier Reef provides latest proof that ‘human-caused climate change’ is a hoax; ClimateScienceNews, 2. avgust 2021BEYOND 

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The ivory tower: The scientific consensus on climate change; Naomi Oreskes, Science, 3. december 2004, zvezek 306, št. 5702, st. 1686 

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Peter T. Doran, Maggie Kendall Zimmerman: Examining the scientific consensus on climate change EOS, TRANSACTIONS AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION, zvezek 90, št. 3, st. 22, 2009

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Terrel Johnson: Startling number of scientific papers disputed human-caused global warming last year; The weather channel, 23. januar 2014

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1112950
Gregory Gardner: Many climate change scientists do not agree that global warming is happening. BMJ. 11. april 1998

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Alex Kasprak: Did 58 scientific papers published in 2017 say global warming is a myth? Snopes, 8. junij, 2017

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Slovenija se segreva dvakrat hitreje od svetovnega povprečja; Mladina, 26. 11. 2019

https://www.24ur.com/novice/slovenija/zakaj-se-slovenija-segreva-dvakrat-hitreje-od-svetovnega-povprecja.html
Rok Nosan: Zakaj se Slovenija segreva dvakrat hitreje od svetovnega povprečja? 24ur.com, 6. 3. 2020

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Slovenija se segreva dvakrat hitreje od svetovnega povprečja. Eko dežela, 29. junija 2021

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Objavljena velika analiza: Hrvatska se zagrijava tri puta brže od prosjeka. IndexHR 24. sječnja 2020

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The bay of Mazatlan warms faster than the world average. The Mazatkan Post, March 24, 2022

https://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/canada-warming-twice-as-fast-as-rest-of-the-world-scientific-report-1.4361044
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Paul Voosen: The Arctic is warming four times faster than the rest of the world. Science, 14. december 2021

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Andrew Roman (6. november 2019): Every country is warming twice as fast as the average!

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Anthony Watts: Alarmism exposed: the entire world is warming faster than the entire planet. Watts up with that (24. julij 2010)

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NOAA annual tropical cyclones report

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EPA’s tropical cyclone climate change indicator report tells only part of the truth, Climate realism, 21. maj 2021

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No trend in global tropical cyclone landfalls, Sunshine hours, 17. julij 2019

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Sehr geehrte Frau Bundesminister Svenja Schulze, wir hätten da mal ein paar Fragen.. EIKE, 8. maj 2020

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Dan po jutrišnjem

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https://www.livescience.com/ocean-currents-speeding-up.html
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Chelsea Harvey: Ocean currents are speeding up, driven by faster winds; Scientific American, E&E news, 6. februar 2020

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Global warming will increases grain production. Climate-Debate.com, 26. januar 2019

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Alan Barrett: Long-term world soybean outlook. US soy, 21. november 2019 

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IPCC fourth assessment report

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Paul Homewood: Paul Reiter debunks malaria scare stories, Not a lot of people know that, 4. maj 2018

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Paul Reiter’s damning assessment of the IPCC. Iowa climate science education, 8. maj 2017

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Memorandum by professor Paul Reiter, Institut Pasteur; Paris, 31. marec 2005

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Hannah Steinberg: Climate change and dengue: How global warming can affect your health. Cohan laboratory in microbial ecology, 9. oktober 2015

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03566-3
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-03566-3
Nils B. Tjaden et al: Modelling the effects of global climate change on Chikungunya transmission in the 21st century

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29500926/
Hina Asad, David O. Carpenter: Effects of climate change on the spread of zika virus: a public health threat. Rev Environ health. 28. marec 2018

https://news.climate.columbia.edu/2020/06/25/covid-19-impacts-climate-change/
Renee Cho: COVID-19’s long-term effects on climate change—for better or worse. Columbia Climate School, 25. junij 2005

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/c-change/subtopics/coronavirus-and-climate-change/Coronavirus, climate change, and the environment; a conversation on COVID-19 with dr. Aaron Bernstein, Director of Harvard Chan C-CHANGE. Harvard T.H. Chan school of public health
https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/04/climate-change-coronavirus-linked/
Arthur Wyns: How our responses to climate change and the coronavirus are linked. World Economic Forum, 2. april 2020

 

SVET ZNANOSTI IN TEHNIKE
Vital Sever

OBLETNICE
150. obletnica izida knjige A treatise on electricity and magnetism – Hubert Fröhlich

VZPON STROJEV, PREDZADNJIČ
Matjaž Gams

POTRESI V JUGOVZHODNI TURČIJI 6. FEBRUARJA 2023
Gregor Rajh, Ina Cetić

REALNOST RAZOGLJIČEVANJA – POGLEJ, PREDEN SKOČIŠ!
Mišo Alkalaj

TEHNOLOŠKE SPREMEMBE V AVTOMOBILSKI LOGISTIKI
Bojan Beškovnik

ANALOGNA ELEKTRONSKA GLASBILA
Jurij Dobravec

MOTORJI Z NOTRANJIM ZGOREVANJEM NAPRODAJ
Vinko Kernc

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Zemlja v plenicah – Darka Lampič

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