aaaaaaaaaaaaŽivljenje in tehnika 9/23
Življenje in tehnika 9/23
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ZEOLITI
Zgodovina odkrivanja zeolitov sega v leto 1756, ko je švedski strokovnjak za minerale Axel Fredrik Cronstedt opazil, da je hitro segrevanje nekega minerala, (danes menijo, da je šlo za stilbit) dalo velike količine pare iz vode, ki jo je omenjeni mineral absorbiral. Poimenoval ga je zeolit, kar odzvanja izvorno grški besedi ζέω (zéō) ali vreti in λίθος (líthos) ali kamen.

Zeoliti so danes pomembna skupina mineralov, ki pripadajo alumosilikatom. Imajo značilno kristalno zgradbo, v kateri se lahko kationi medsebojno nadomeščajo. Zato skupina zeolitov šteje veliko mineralov, celo več kot štirideset. Še ena pomembna lastnost zeolitov je njihova luknjičavost oz. mikroporoznost in dokajšnja reaktivnost na nekatere snovi. Kot adsorbenti in katalizatorji so tržno zelo pomembni. Njihova uporabnost je zelo široka, prepoznavnost še toliko bolj. Zato prav vseh lastnosti, ki jih zeolitom pripisujejo trgovci, ne smemo vzeti zares. 

Vsak mineral ima značilno zgradbo in bolj ali manj stalno kemijsko sestavo. Zeoliti kot skupina alumosilikatov vedno vsebujejo kemijske prvine aluminij, silicij in kisik, med kationi se izmenjujejo …

 

SFERITI – CELIČNE STRUKTURE RAZNOLIKIH FUNKCIJ
Kljub številnim odkritjem na področju naravoslovja nam delovanje organizmov še ni popolnoma znano. Še vedno je mnogo neznank glede različnih procesov, ki potekajo v živih bitjih. Radovednost ljudi in stalno prisotna želja po boljšem razumevanju živega vodita do odkritij, ob katerih pa se vedno znova porajajo nova vprašanja.

Tako so pri proučevanju celične zgradbe nevretenčarjev opazili organele (celične predelke) sferične (kroglaste) oblike, sferite, katerih delovanje sprva ni bilo jasno. O njih smo že pisali (ŽIT 2015/1, str. 52), raziskave v zadnjih letih pa so pokazale, da sferiti delujejo zelo raznoliko in na več načinov pripomorejo h kar najugodnejšemu poteku življenjskih procesov v celicah nekaterih živalih. Ogledali si bomo nekaj zanimivih ugotovitev novejših študij, ki so pripomogle k spoznavanju zgradbe in delovanja teh sestavnih delov celice.

Sferiti so organeli, ki jih najdemo v različnih vrstah celic številnih skupin nevretenčarjev. Prisotni so pri mehkužcih, sedlaših, rakih, škorpijonih, pajkih, pršicah, suhih južinah in žuželkah. So okrogle ali ovalne oblike, zgrajeni pa so iz ...

 

POBARVANO NA ZELENO
Za uspeh laži sta potrebna dva: tisti, ki jo naplete, in tisti, ki ji obupano želi verjeti. (Jodi Picoult, ameriška pisateljica)

Varstvo okolja se je spremenilo v verovanje. To ni zlobna označba nasprotnikov zelenih gibanj, ampak sklep, ki ga lahko preberemo tudi v znanstvenih člankih. V predavanju Michaela Crichtona je sodobna okoljevarstvena ideologija ʻverovanje mestnih brezbožnežev’, saj najde le malo pristašev med kmeti, podeželani in sploh vsemi, ki imajo kaj stika z naravo.

Kot praktično vse vere ima tudi okoljevarstvo notranji (intrizični) in zunanji (ekstrinzični) vidik. Prvi podrazumeva notranje prepričanje vernika, ki usmerja njegovo delovanje; ekstrizična prvina verovanja vernika sili v izkazovanje pripadnosti formalni verski skupnosti z zunanjimi znaki, ne glede na notranje prepričanje. Ekstrinzični vidik vere ima svoje osnove v politiki, v prevladi voditeljev nad verniki in se sklada z latinskim pomenom besede religiō, torej ʻponovno zvezati’ (Laktancij). Okoljevarstveništvo je vse bolj politično gibanje in kot tako izkazuje vse več zunanjih prvin. Dokler so take samo na ideologiji temelječe ideje brez znanstvene osnove ali stika z resničnostjo predmet le gostilniških razprav, ni nič hudega. A žal imajo gibanja poklicnih okoljevarstvenikov …

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SVET ZNANOSTI IN TEHNIKE
Vital Sever

OBLETNICE
280. let od rojstva matematika in politika Nicolasa de Condorceta – Gregor Pavlič

ZEOLITI
Miha Jeršek

POBARVANO NA ZELENO
Mišo Alkalaj

SFERITI – CELIČNE STRUKTURE RAZNOLIKIH FUNKCIJ
Saša Lipovšek in Timeja Tešić

PRVI ELEKTRONSKI RAČUNALNIKI V JUGOSLAVIJI
Miha Urh in Boštjan Špetič

VISOKOGORSKA CESTA POD VELIKIM KLEKOM
Igor Fabjan

PRVI PREIZKUSNI LET ZVEZDNE LADJE
Peter Zidar

130 LET KORINTSKEGA PREKOPA
Matej Pavlič

ZNANSTVENA FANTASTIKA
Vzporedni svetovi – Majda Srna

SPLETARNA
Aram Karalič

EFEMERIDE –  oktober 2023
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